For starters, I've rectified the data in the image by manually adjusting UV coordinates in Blender:
I edited the rectified image in GIMP, first rescaling to 144x64, then adjusting colors until the resulting image data is perfectly clear (one or two errors may have crept in):
Now if you look closely, every second column is just alternating black/white. ...
The name of this puzzle is
I solved the Sudoku, then learned from the other answers here, that the next step is to solve a Yajilin, a puzzle type I haven't heard of before. As these both steps are already covered in the other answers, I only give the combined solution here:
Now the last step is
I don't think it's a spoiler to say that the image contains binary text. Converting it to ASCII, you get:
The next step, therefore, is to
The key to decrypting this is also in the image:
Decrypting it results in what I presume is the final message:
As a final note, "Sifr wa Wahed" apparently translates to "zero and one".
This is just a work in progress.
The Sudoku looks like this:
That means the colored numbers are:
The surrounding colors looks
I have yet to figure out the significance of those numbers, but I'm working on it.
The colored numbers could be placed like this (according to their relative positions):
The positions of the red and yellow numbers are the only ...
7 is the value for g, which is the first letter of "green", the sum of the values of the letters in the word is 49, and "3" is for "cube", 49^3=117649.
Just like "19" is for "square" refering to squaring
"[red]" and "[yellow]"