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5

We have seven criteria to satisfy: At least one room has none of Shelled, Crusted, Soft-bodied. None of the rooms have 3 of Furry, Bark, Scaly, Slimy, Shelled, Crusted together. Shelled, Crusted, and Bark should all be in different rooms. Rough-skinned and Shelled can't be together. Bare-skinned and Furry mermaids can't be together. Slimy and Soft-bodied ...


4

Ernie's pentagrams were bigger than yours by Ernie's pentagrams were cut like this: Your pentagrams and the hexagram were cut like this: That makes the area of the hexagram


3

They are sometimes called epistemic puzzles or in more simple terms knowledge puzzles, as they involve reasoning about knowledge and reasoning about reasoning about knowledge, and so on. Note that the first link is to a blog by a professional logician, so it is probably as good as you are going to get in terms of a recognized name for such puzzles.


3

Bob is Let's number the seats $0$, ... , $n-1$ so that B occupies seat $0$. If B' occupies sit $k$, then the guests are shared in two groups: $G1$ with $k$ people and $G2$ with $n-k$ people. A been chosen uniformly at random and independantly from B and B', For a given $k$, she will serve on average: Averaging for all $k$'s, she will serve: If $n$ is ...


3

Ignoring the restrictions, the minimum possible number of moves is nine. Five trips with two fairies from lilypad to land, and four trips back with a single fairy to return the leaf, to get all six fairies on dry land. The minimum that can be achieved with the restrictions is:


1

I would call them "metaknowledge" puzzles, as the audience is given knowledge about the in-universe solvers' knowledge.


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