Using the old Mastermind game colors of B = correct in correct place and W = correct in wrong place, we have the following clues:
a. 2657 WW
b. 0415 W
d. 1749 BB
From c, we know that
From 1 and a, we know that
From 2 and b, we know that
From 1 and 3, we know that
From 3 and 4, we know that
At this point, we know that the ...
I don't know why you have concluded that the scoring ambiguity is not resolved by the Wikipedia page. There is text on that page which, to me, clearly addresses and resolves this issue:
If there are duplicate colours in the guess, they cannot all be
awarded a key peg unless they correspond to the same number of
duplicate colours in the hidden code. ...
Detailed reasoning associated to Shahriar Mahmud Sajid's answer
69172 - One digit is correct and in the right place
38512 - Two digits are correct but in the wrong place
45286 - Two digits are correct but in the wrong place.
All of the answers so far assume that for some reason mastermind rules apply to this puzzle. The tag mastermind was added a couple of days ago. Of course you need to make some assumptions to solve this puzzle, I will assume the puzzle is using base ten among other things, but I will not assume that mastermind's rules apply. Only thing that is relevant are ...
This answer is only true if you disregard the rules that the mastermind tag implies. Nothing except the tag hints that masterminds rules should apply here and usually when these things are passed around they do not come with Masterminds rules included. That tag was also not put there by the person asking the question, so I will look at only what is written ...