# Questions tagged [probability]

A mathematical puzzle whose essential nature involves randomness.

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2answers
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### The asymmetric coin game

After finding a coin in her farm, Alice proposes the following game to Bob: Alice will flip the coin $n$ times. Bob will then flip the coin $2n$ times. If Bob manages to get the same amount of ...
1answer
5k views

### Say 100 and win

Our good friends that like games, Alice and Bob, play a game called "Say 100 and win". The rules are: In the beginning they use one regular 6 faced die to get a random number between 1 and 6. Let's ...
1answer
248 views

### Coin with two heads [closed]

I was at a job interview and got a question. You have a bag with 100 coins. One of these coins has two heads, other coins are regular. You get one coin from this bag, put it on a table and see head. ...
5answers
2k views

### The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Tuco, Blondie and Sentenza play a game with a single die. Tuco has the first roll, then Blondie, and then Sentenza, and so on. As soon as a player tosses a six, that player drops out of the game and ...
6answers
1k views

### A set of lockers

There is a series of 100 lockers in a school. All of them start closed. Students number 1 to 100 flip an even, two sided coin. If the coin lands on heads, they go through each locker corresponding ...
3answers
2k views

### No two heads in a row

Suppose I toss a fair coin a 100 times. What is the probability of not getting two heads in a row?
5answers
2k views

### Unfair coins at South Park Elementary v2

Following Unfair coins at South Park Elementary Wendy and Sally have another friend, called Timmy. Although Timmy has no coin, he wants to play this game in a fair condition with them. Wendy does the ...
8answers
5k views

### Unfair coins at South Park Elementary

Wendy Testaburger and Sally Turner play a game with two unfair coins. A coin flip with Wendy's coin shows head with probability $\frac {1} {100}$. A coin flip with Sally's coin shows head with ...
3answers
1k views

### Domino tile possibilities

I own a normal domino game with 28 tiles. Each tile carries two of the numbers [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] (where 0 represents blank). During cleanup five pieces fell out of the box. Two of them showed ...
5answers
891 views

### Seven cowboys play a coin tossing game [closed]

Seven cowboys play a coin tossing game with a fair coin where each player has a chance of 1/2 of winning. Each of them plays once against all other six. What is the probability that each cowboy wins ...
3answers
1k views

### Seven cards in a bowler hat

The game show host puts seven cards with the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 into a bowler hat. The candidate picks cards up randomly from the hat, one card at a time, and without putting cards back, ...
5answers
3k views

### A chess board and a coin! [closed]

You have a standard chessboard, consisting of $64$ squares ($32$ white and $32$ black) each of dimensions $4\times4$ cm, and you have a standard coin of $2$ cm diameter with tail and head. You flip ...
5answers
1k views

### The Price is Right [closed]

A real life puzzle, yesterday on The Price is Right a contestant played the following game: She could choose 5 cards from a pile where 2 cards were "Car", 11 were "C", 11 were "A" and 11 were "R". ...
1answer
404 views

### Corollary to “A game with 52 cards”

Inspired by A game with 52 cards Alice and Bob play the following game with two (identical) standard decks of $52$ cards. First Alice secretly arranges one deck of $52$ cards in a long row ...
2answers
171 views

### A chance to know 52 cards [closed]

This is the Follow up Question to A game with 52 cards. So it requires to understand previous question! I believe it is a bit harder to find! what is the chance to know the positions of all the face-...
1answer
3k views

### Crippled King Crossing a Canyon

A chess king has been injured in battle against an evil wizard, and can no longer move northeast or southwest. This king is on the North rim of a canyon, and must flee to safety on the South rim. ...
0answers
149 views

### Finding the numbers [duplicate]

I found a nice problem. Here is what it says: Kevin and Peter are given a piece of paper each where they write a number. Their friend John comes up and takes the two pieces of paper and opens ...
3answers
401 views

### A game with numbers [closed]

Two people randomly select two different 1-digit numbers (including 0 of course) and calculate their absolute difference. Then They share what they get, What is the probability of having the same ...
3answers
564 views

### What is the value of this other coin flipping game?

This is variation of this question: What is the value of this coin flipping game? Imagine that you can play the game in a casino - you are flipping a fair coin. If you get tails, the game continues ...
3answers
1k views

### Three Cafes Puzzle

Every morning a couple has breakfast at one of three cafes: Amy's, Bob's, or Cindy's. After eating at Amy's or Bob's, they flip a coin to see which of the other two cafes they'll go to the next ...
1answer
163 views

### The Attack on Fort Alpha

I made this puzzle up in 1999 when I was a student. Fort Alpha, on your border territories, was attacked by The Enemy. You don't know if it fell, or repulsed The Enemy's vicious onslaught. A totally ...
6answers
4k views

### 99 doors to death!

You wake up in a small locked room of a huge castle. There are 100 doors, numbers 1 to 100, and you are to open one of them. Open the correct door, and the entire castle is yours to keep. Open any of ...
2answers
1k views

### Place 10 Coins Heads Up Blindfolded [duplicate]

You are blindfolded and 10 coins are placed in front of you on table. You are allowed to touch the coins, but can’t tell which way up they are by feel. You are told that there are 5 coins head up, and ...
3answers
3k views

### Relabeling two 20-sided dice without changing their total

Usually, 20-sided dice are labeled with the numbers 1 to 20. When you roll two of these, their sum is a random number between 2 and 40. The total 21 is most likely to occur, while 2 and 40 are the ...
2answers
334 views

### Card Passing Game

13 friends are sitting around a table. They shuffle a half-deck of cards, consisting of only the black cards of a standard deck, and deal out two cards to each person. There are then a series of ...
1answer
182 views

### Gambling with the gambler [closed]

You are walking on the street and notice a guy gambling with some other guys and you start to watch. The game principle is pretty easy. There is a standard 52-card deck and it is being shuffled every ...
2answers
151 views

### Finding a random number in a randomly assigned number in boxes [duplicate]

In a closed room, paper slips labelled $1$ to $100$ are randomly put into boxes also labeled $1$ to $100$. You win a big prize if you can locate a given number (from $1$ to $100$) by opening no more ...
4answers
382 views

### Drawing uniformly using a single biased coin

Your task is to draw uniformly from a set of size $N$. You are given a single coin which you can ‘bend’ to control the probability $p\in[0,1]$ of throwing a Head, but you are only allowed a bounded ...
1answer
627 views

### Two Dice = Nine Cards

I have nine cards, each labeled with a real number (possibly negative or fractional) in a special way. When I randomly pick two of these cards without replacement and add their labels together, the ...
3answers
1k views

### In a Guess The Color game, what's the optimal strategy?

Here's a one-player card game: We begin with a shuffled card deck The player try to guess the color of the card at the top (black or red) If the player guess right, he can keep the card. Else the ...
4answers
689 views

2answers
1k views

### A coin flip's long tail

I have a (possibly-) unfair coin, which lands heads with probability $p$ and lands tails with probability $1-p$. I toss it twice; the tosses are independent and identically distributed. The ...
3answers
4k views

6answers
5k views

### What is the expected value of this coin flipping game?

A casino offers the following game: You flip a fair coin repeatedly and record the results on slips of paper, one result per slip. At any time you may decide to stop, at which time one of the slips ...
2answers
275 views

### Kill for a young body [closed]

FROM 2013 Real Playing Game. Here's the trailer. You are an old, deathly-ill multimillionaire. A biotech company has developed some brain transfer technology and offers you the chance to ...
4answers
760 views

### Born to lie, to live, to die

There is a race which has a truth gene. It consists of 3 alleles, namely T, F and O. A person inherits one allele from each of his parents, hence he/she has always exactly two alleles. For example, if ...
2answers
1k views

### How many keys will we try before opening the door? [closed]

You have N keys, exactly K of which will open your door. If you tries keys at random and you never try the same key twice, then X is the number of keys you will try before opening the door. X is a ...
3answers
1k views

### Shooting Free Throws

Shaq is shooting free throws. He makes his first shot, then misses his second. Confidence is a huge factor in how well Shaq plays. This means that for each subsequent shot, the probability he makes ...
2answers
254 views

### N strings in a bag

There are n strings in a bag. In one pass, you randomly pick one end of a string and then one more string. Then you tie these two ends together and put the resulting string back into the bag. Then ...
7answers
2k views

### Poker and a card shark

I am playing poker with three friends and from a well-shuffled deck we have each been dealt five cards. I have a hand consisting of the four kings and the two of hearts. Being a poker wizard I know ...
3answers
2k views

### The Sphinx's Dice

"I'm bored of riddles, I'm going to ask you a question about dice instead", says the Sphinx. "Now, I've got this set of Efron Dice here. There's four dice, and they have these values on their faces:" ...
2answers
759 views

### The Fanatic Fever(twist on the 5 pirates puzzle)

While raiding a tropical island, 6 pirates have an incredibly unlucky day. While they scoured the island in search of treasure, one of them was infected with the Fanatic Fever, a disease which hits ...