Questions tagged [number-theory]

A mathematical puzzle whose solution is heavily based on the arithmetic properties of the integers. General number theory questions are off-topic but can be asked on Mathematics Stack Exchange.

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9
votes
3answers
567 views

Discover the six-character password!

You are given several pieces of paper which are as follows: (Unfortunately, a textual rendering is very difficult with this puzzle, so if someone can offer a suggestion on how to do it, that would be ...
0
votes
0answers
131 views

3 bags of coins, find which bag contains fake coins, doing only 1 weighing

Probably a very easy puzzle for you guys; my point is more a mathematical one. FYI, it was shown in an episode of Columbo. You have 3 bags of coins. Each bag contains 50 identical coins. Two bags ...
10
votes
4answers
684 views

Sharing cake among 9 or fewer people

You are expecting guests to your birthday party. You know that there will be at most 8 guests, but you don't know how many will actually come. What is the smallest number of pieces you should divide ...
0
votes
0answers
79 views

Hitting a car with a bullet [duplicate]

1) There is a road on which a car starts with an integral speed towards the left or the right, starting from an integral point (take the road to be the x-axis) 2) The speed and the point from which ...
17
votes
4answers
3k views

Smallest PRIME containing the first 11 primes as sub-strings

In Smallest number containing the first 11 primes as sub-strings, @Alconja successfully found the smallest number which contains the first eleven primes (2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31) as ...
7
votes
2answers
419 views

Smallest prime number which when spelt out contains the letters P, R, I, M, E

So inspired by recent slew of questions based on prime numbers. What is the smallest prime number when written out (Using the Western numbering system and English) would you encounter the letters P, ...
10
votes
2answers
586 views

A Magic Flying Saucer

Place 19 different positive integers on the vertices of this graph so that the 13 products of three numbers in a straight line are all equal. Do so in such a way that the product is as small as ...
62
votes
24answers
20k views

Make 0 0 0 0 = 8

Can you find a way to make: $0\ 0 \ 0 \ 0 = 8$ by adding any operations or symbols? You can use only these symbols: $+,\ -,\ *,\ !,\ /,\ \hat\, ,\ ()$. It is limited to this list, and ...
8
votes
3answers
741 views

The Royal Mint of Alphagonia

In the Kingdom of Alphagonia nothing can be bought for less than 30 alphas, the local currency. 1) What three denominations of coins should the kingdom mint so that as many as possible of the (...
10
votes
2answers
542 views

National Graph Lottery

In UK's National Lottery players choose 6 different whole numbers in the range 1 to 59, and win a large prize if all six match with the day's draw. Each choice of six numbers by a player gives rise ...
8
votes
1answer
547 views

Winning the Lottery

Bob: I hear you won the lottery. Alice: So I did! Bob: What six numbers did you win it with? Alice: Can't remember. All I recall is that they were all different, and none greater than 28. Bob: ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

A Magic Diamond

Place 15 different positive integers on the vertices of this graph so that the ten products of three numbers in a straight line are all equal.
7
votes
0answers
216 views

What is a Freecell Word™?

This is in the spirit of the What is a Word/Phrase™ series started by JLee with a special brand of Phrase™ and Word™ puzzles. If a word conforms to a special rule, I call it a Freecell Word™. Use the ...
16
votes
1answer
895 views

Box of tablets, whole or broken: solution required

This is a puzzle that I thought up whilst taking a course of meds. I currently haven’t solved it, and would be curious to know if anyone has a solution for it. Here goes: Scenario: John has a box of ...
6
votes
2answers
146 views

Positioning cards labeled with numbers from 0-9

Ann and Bob play a game. On a table there are 10 cards which are labeled with number from 0 to 9 each. Bob is allowed to change the position of the cards with a sequence of his preference. When he is ...
2
votes
2answers
179 views

How to find number of times sequence element $1$ is approached and from where?

Consider a sequence $1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,...,-1$. Start at the first element and move down the sequence according to the following rules: 1) If you jump from a $-1$ to another $-1$, turn the latter into ...
5
votes
2answers
119 views

A pile of chips involving powers of 2

Ann and Bob play alternately on a pile of chips. On each play, any number of chips, which is a power of 2 (including 1=$2^0$), can be removed from the pile. Obviously the number of chips to be removed ...
6
votes
1answer
172 views

A pile of chips involving primes

Ann and Bob play alternately on a pile of chips. On each play, either 1, 2 or 3 chips can be removed except if the number of chips is a prime number. In that case either 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 chips can be ...
8
votes
2answers
749 views

IX-NAY on the IX-SAY

Will this sequence ever have a 6 in it? 9, 1, 1, 1, 10, 3, 1, 1, 10, 5, 1, 1, 10, 1, 5, 2, 1, 1, 10, 1, 1, 1, 5, 4, 1, 1, 10, 3, 1, 1, 5, 1, 1, 1, 5, 2, 1, 1, 10, 5, 1, 1, 5, 3, 1, 1, 5, 4, 1, ... ...
2
votes
10answers
15k views

Make numbers 1-30 using 2, 0, 1, 9

This is very similar to the 2, 0, 1, 8 problem. Just try to make all numbers 1-30 using the digits 2, 0, 1, 9. Rules: Use all four digits exactly once Allowed operations: +, -, x, ÷, ! (factorial), ...
6
votes
1answer
217 views

I'm a Proper Divisor

Ann and Bob are playing a number game. Ann starts with the number 60. Then she subtracts a proper divisor of 60 from it. Bob then takes the number Ann made and subtracts one of its proper divisors ...
4
votes
1answer
398 views

Find my two numbers

Find my two numbers: Both are positive integers. Their difference is a prime. Their product is a perfect square. Their sum's last digit is 3. Bonus: Can you show how many solutions exist?
8
votes
1answer
477 views

Relevant primes

Let's call a prime number $p$ "relevant" if there exists an integer $n>1$ such that the integer part of the sum $$ \sum_{k=1}^{p^n} \sqrt[n]{\frac{1}{k^{n-1}}}$$ is $2016$. How many "relevant" ...
12
votes
2answers
609 views

The Puzzling Reverse and Add Sequence

The sequence of numbers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 11, 22,... (A056964 in the OEIS), in which the nth term equals n+reversal of digits of n, poses a number of intriguing puzzles. Here just ...
6
votes
3answers
428 views

Guessing a number with 250 divisors

Alice and Bob play the following number guessing game. First Alice picks an integer $n$ with exactly $250$ positive divisors. These divisors include $1$ and $n$, and are denoted as $1=d_1<d_2<...
9
votes
4answers
544 views

The Football Squad

The sixteen players of a football squad, wearing shirts numbered 1 to 16, have arrived in town for a tournament. At their hotel, they are assigned 16 rooms consecutively numbered. Moreover, each of ...
1
vote
1answer
208 views

Frobenius coin problem variation

Suppose you are give $n$ currency notes from $k$ to $k+n$ i.e $k, k+1,k+2.....k+n$ Where $k,n>0$ It's asked the total number of denomination of money that can't be formed using any number of ...
0
votes
0answers
73 views

Invert the numbers [duplicate]

I have an array of numbers containing 0 and 1 only and you are given a a constant C . You have to invert all the 0's to 1's by taking exactly C number of elements . What is the max number of 1's we ...
3
votes
2answers
455 views

Let M and N be single-digit integers. If the product 2M5 x 13N is divisible by 36, how many ordered pairs (M,N) are possible? [closed]

Let M and N be single-digit integers. If the product 2M5 x 13N is divisible by 36, how many ordered pairs (M,N) are possible? -- source I tried it by reducing 36 into its positive factors (1,2,3,...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

How many ordered pairs (a,b) satisfy a^2=b^3+1, where a and b are integers? [closed]

(A)2 (B)3 (C)4 (D)5 I got 2 pairs (0,-1), and (3,2), but the correct answer is 5. Can somebody help? Thanks in advance!
-1
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2answers
83 views
4
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2answers
1k views
6
votes
1answer
327 views

Math Puzzle - What am I?

I am X. I was roaming around some place and found another X. We got attracted. Got into some operation and generate Y. Me and my X got together now and went to roam the places. We found the group ...
8
votes
1answer
381 views

Number sequence puzzle; 2, 10, 44 (+2 hints)

Predict the next three members of the sequence below and explain what the relationship is. 2, 10, 44, 1012, 248, This number sequence does not appear in the Online Encyclopedia of Integer ...
5
votes
4answers
876 views

Why did this prime-sequence puzzle not work?

While attacking a recent puzzle (whose solution ended up being entirely different from what I was trying), I was inspired to create a number-sequence puzzle with a sequence $(p_n)$ of primes where the ...
17
votes
2answers
2k views

We are two immediate neighbors who forged our own powers to form concatenated relationship. Who are we?

Our concatenated number is $ \overline{ABAC}, $ where $ A, B, C $ are all positive digits (1 - 9). Our relationship is $$ \overline{ABAC} = A^A + B^B + A^A + C^C $$ Who are we?
6
votes
1answer
139 views

Find the immediate square dancing neighbors, they dance together to perfect square

We live in a community of houses sequentially numbered from 1 to 100. We all love square dancing but only two immediate neighbors are joy to watch. If you concatenate their house numbers, it forms a ...
8
votes
3answers
645 views

Double or Take game

Double or Take is a two-player number game. Alice starts by selecting any positive integer. Bob's options are to: subtract a positive perfect square subtract a positive perfect cube, or double the ...
5
votes
2answers
204 views

SafeCracker #2 - The Mission Continues

Thanks to an alert StackE user, we were able to get the first safe open. Mission Details This next safe is in a former employee's house. He is gone for now, so we have no time to spare. We weren't ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Father and Son and Grandsons

The sum of the ages of a father, his son, and his two grandsons is 181. The father´s age has a common divisor greater than 1 with the ages of each of his three descendants, but not two of the latter ...
1
vote
6answers
412 views

Product of Factorials

In the annual meeting of the International Conference of Puzzle Scenarios, each of $100$ people in a room is given a different number from the set $\{1!,2!,3!,...,99!,100!\}$. One person leaves the ...
6
votes
2answers
329 views

Swap — A Puzzle I Created

This puzzle is called Swap. Let's find out why! Suppose you are given a random $\rm N\times N$ matrix (grid) with all the integers from $1$ to $\rm N^2$ each belonging in every grid square (a.k.a. ...
-7
votes
2answers
228 views

What number + 1 equals itself? [closed]

Answer in numerical form. The answer is not an integer. The answer is in string form. The answer is not my love life...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

An Accountant Seeks the Help of a Mathematician

The accountant complaints to the mathematician: “I lent money to five other faculty members and still haven’t been paid back. You are one of them; the other four owe me 12 dollars altogether, but ...
20
votes
4answers
831 views

Consecutive integers around a circle

Find a block of positive consecutive integers that can be placed around a circle in some order so that any two adjacent numbers always have a common divisor greater than 1.
8
votes
5answers
656 views

The Legend of Four

As far as I know, all numbers have a root of 4. What I mean by this is as follows: Starting with any number, for example 384, I take the number of letters in that number. Then I repeat this process ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Figure out the code

So remember all those puzzles about 100 or 1000 or however many logicians abducted by aliens and they are going to be killed if they can't figure out their hat color or the number on their back? Well ...
13
votes
2answers
724 views

Digit sums of successive integers

For a natural number $x$ both, the digit sum of $x$ and the digit sum of $x+1$ are multiples of $7$. What is the smallest possible $x$?
11
votes
4answers
4k views

Create the numbers 1 - 30 using the digits 2, 0, 1, 9 in this particular order!

Inspired by the last year's "2018 four 4s challenge", I thought it's time to welcome 2019 by a similar challenge. This time you have to use the digits 2, 0, 1, 9 in this particular order to create the ...
2
votes
2answers
369 views

Can the sum, difference and product of 2 numbers be perfect squares? [closed]

If we take 2 numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $x>y>0$ and , can $x + y$, $x - y$ and $xy$ all be perfect squares?