Questions tagged [meta-knowledge]

Puzzles where perfect logicians are told different pieces of information, and the reader must figure out something based on their words and actions.

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5 votes
1 answer
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Sobot or fauxbot?

Through the bustling hallway, you followed your speed-walking, speed-talking brother, who was hoping to submit an article about the upcoming demonstration to his beloved Logic and Philately Semi-...
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5 votes
1 answer
219 views

23 people wearing hats with a bell ringing [closed]

24 extremely intelligent people get invited to a really important party. Since it's really important after 9pm (the start time of the party) a guardian will guard the door to enter the party. All of ...
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3 votes
1 answer
255 views

The two numbers which were overestimated

James: These two cards have two numbers $X$ and $Y$, which are both one-digit numbers and are different. Can you find the sum? Jack: No, that's impossible. Can I get a hint? James: The last digit of $...
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3 votes
3 answers
454 views

Blue eyes riddle: a counter-argument to accepted solution

I would like help understanding my flawed logic in my following reasoning: The Blue-eyes Riddle is commonly expressed as A group of people with assorted eye colors live on an island. They are all ...
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16 votes
3 answers
1k views

Disaster on Blue-Eyes Island

A particular island has 100 inhabitants. None of them know their own eye colour. They are all perfect logicians. Every night at midnight, a ferry stops on the island, and every islander who has ...
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  • 624
5 votes
2 answers
221 views

Knight-Knave-Normal Meta-Knowledge

A traveller visited one of the islands described by Raymond Smullyan on which all inhabitants are either knights, who always tell the truth, knaves, who always lie, or normals, who can say anything. ...
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  • 624
-2 votes
1 answer
160 views

Variant of blue eyes puzzle [closed]

There are a total of 200 players assigned to either A or B at a certain venue. There are actually 100 of each, but the players don't know that. They don't know which one they are. Of course, there is ...
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  • 1
4 votes
1 answer
514 views

100 blue-eyed people riddle N=4

The solution of this riddle is usually given with explicit reasoning for two cases: Case where there is only 1 blue-eyed person, Case where there are 2 blue-eyed people. That logic is clear, and I ...
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  • 51
3 votes
2 answers
356 views

3 hats with numbers, where 2 hats sum to the third

I have outlined a puzzle below, and provided two sources which provide answers. I am disputing that the answer provided in the sources is correct, and I am looking for others to validate or invalidate ...
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4 votes
3 answers
266 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 7

My brother just created this puzzle for me for Halloween, at first I thought it looked simple, but then it turned out to be very challenging (at least for me!) I'll add it to my collection/app soon. I ...
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  • 399
1 vote
2 answers
182 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 6

And for today, a new original hat guessing puzzle! CHALLENGE: Guess the hats of the 4 prisoners. SPECIAL RULE: One of the prisoners is lying DESCRIPTION: Each one can see the hats that are in front ...
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  • 399
3 votes
1 answer
395 views

Ernest does not know the color of his hat (3)

(again a more a difficult one) The (same) premise: An unknown number of people stands on a line playing a hat guessing game they may not move during the game, they can only look straight ahead (each ...
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  • 4,767
2 votes
1 answer
209 views

Ernest does not know the color of his hat (2)

The previous version indeed proved simple; now a medium one (I think) The (same) premise: A number of people stands on a line playing a hat guessing game they may not move during the game, they can ...
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  • 4,767
3 votes
2 answers
395 views

Ernest does not know the color of his hat

Previously I tried to make a very difficult hat color deduction puzzle: Unseen prisoners figuring out their hats It seems to be too hard for the interested, since I did not get a complete solution. ...
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  • 4,767
6 votes
2 answers
585 views

Unseen prisoners figuring out their hats

A warden wants to play a game with his prisoners. He tells them that they have to tell him the color of their own hats if they want to have dinner. note: The warden may be mean, but the prison has a ...
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  • 4,767
3 votes
1 answer
150 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 5

I was impressed with all the answers and interesting reasoning in the previous puzzle (riddle 4). So for today I have another original hat guessing puzzle! Challenge: guess who is wearing the green ...
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  • 399
2 votes
7 answers
648 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 4

And today's puzzle, a freshly made one that I am thinking of adding to my collection, I hope it's challenging enough! CHALLENGE: Guess the hats of the prisoners. SPECIAL RULE: There are three types of ...
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  • 399
3 votes
2 answers
463 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 3

This time I added a special rule, please let me know what you think about it! CHALLENGE: You have to guess which ones are wearing green hats and which ones are wearing black: SPECIAL RULE: All the ...
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  • 399
4 votes
1 answer
195 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 2

After the previous riddle I asked was resolved so quickly, I propose you another self-created hat-guessing riddle. This time it is slightly more difficult, good luck! TASK: You have to guess which ...
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  • 399
7 votes
1 answer
432 views

Guess the hat colors - Riddle 1

I have created several riddles with my brother, and one of my favourite ones is this one. It is based on the classic prisoner hat riddle, but it has a twist. TASK: You have to guess which ones are ...
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  • 399
5 votes
1 answer
285 views

Origin of the "Ages of Three Children" puzzle (Census-taker problem)

There is this puzzle and many variations of it, but it usually comes by as "Ages of Three Children puzzle" (wikipedia article), or as the "Census puzzle" (mathsisfun.com, youtube ...
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7 votes
2 answers
265 views

Find the ages of mathematician's children

Mathematician: "It was the August of 1997 when they barged into my house..." - Here is his story: Students surprised their mathematics teacher with a cake on his birthday. The teacher was ...
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9 votes
1 answer
255 views

Another problem with ages

Remember the famous three kids problem with the oldest one who plays the piano? Take a look at the next one: A priest and a verger were travelling on a train carriage with three more passengers.Then ...
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  • 2,223
12 votes
7 answers
1k views

Blue eyes riddle: what information is gleaned after the first night?

There are good explanations on this site and xkcd of the inductive reasoning leading to the riddle’s solution, but nowhere have I found an answer to the following aspect: Exactly what information is ...
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14 votes
4 answers
1k views

Three secret numbers and sum

Three students are given one positive integer number each written on a paper. Every student knows only their own number. Their teacher tells them that the total sum is 16. Later the teacher asks them ...
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  • 556
10 votes
2 answers
458 views

Alice, Bob and Charlie know the sum, product and the difference between two numbers

This was sent to me by a friend so I can't source it but here's the full text: Three Mathematics students, Alice, Bob and Charlie have to find the values of $x$ and $y$, with $x, y \in \mathbb Z, ...
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  • 203
2 votes
3 answers
476 views

The Missing House Number

The Visit One day I was visiting my sister in Boston and heard a bunch of kids yelling and playing in the yard ( yahd ). I couldn't see the kids, and hadn't seen my sis for years so I asked her, "...
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  • 2,105
16 votes
9 answers
4k views

Three people wearing hats

Ms. Doha gave hats with different non-zero single digits (two of which are factors of the third) to Ms. Haha, Ms. Lola and Mr. Hehe. The three of them can't see the digits on their own hat though they ...
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7 votes
1 answer
567 views

What is the Unit Digit of the Sum?

I am thinking of 2 integers $x$ and $y$ which follow the following; $$2≤x≤y$$ $$x+y≤47$$ I then write the sum $S = x+y$ and the product $P=xy$ on two separate cards. I pass the sum card to player A ...
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5 votes
3 answers
1k views

Engineers logic test for a job [duplicate]

Two engineers go to a job interview. They are introduced and told they are looking for people with team working skills. Without time to talk or get to know each other, they are guided to two different ...
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  • 53
18 votes
5 answers
2k views

Again! 6 prisoners, 2 colors, one mute

After that last game, the warden didn't like that they escaped. So he made them all play again. Like before, they know there are 6 prisoners, 3 red hats and 3 white hats. They know one prisoner is ...
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  • 3,614
39 votes
13 answers
8k views

6 prisoners, 2 colors, one mute

Just like the classic 4 prisoners hats riddle, here we have 6 prisoners buried to their necks in the ground. They can only look straight ahead so that A only sees B, C, D, E while B sees C, D, E, and ...
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  • 3,614
9 votes
7 answers
512 views

3 travelers and 9 diamonds

There are three travelers. They are inside a cave. Deep down in this cave, there are three doors, each door containing at least one diamond, and there are a total of 9 diamonds. Each traveler picks a ...
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  • 207
6 votes
1 answer
228 views

Lifeless, but Alive

Lifeless, but alive, An aura of death surrounding. Flies and maggots prosper, Unmoving, unyielding. Limbs of crimson, ever grieving. In danger, A stigma. Of whom do I speak? Hints from ...
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  • 2,900
5 votes
1 answer
333 views

I don't want to let my friends down

This is an entry into the Fortnightly Topic Challenge #36 I was supposed to do something, but I can't remember what it was. I know it was supposed to be fun or funny. In a typical effort to hide my ...
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  • 9,549
25 votes
3 answers
2k views

A game of multiplication and addition

Carol is playing a game with Alice and Bob. She secretly chooses two integers between 1 and 10 and gives the sum to Alice and the product to Bob. After some time, the following discussion occurs: ...
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  • 2,680
23 votes
3 answers
4k views

3 Numbers on Hats, A = B + C

This feels like it should be a common puzzle, but I haven't found anything exactly like it searching online, so here goes. Apologies if it's a duplicate. Three logicians, person 1, 2, and 3, along ...
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  • 397
18 votes
10 answers
2k views

Communicating Information about Cards

Seven cards, numbered $1,2,3,4,5,6,7$, are distributed randomly among three people: Rand gets one of them, Deusovi gets three of them, and Gareth gets three of them. All three know what the seven ...
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7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Hat puzzle - 7 prisoners

There are 7 prisoners buried up to their necks in sand. 6 are on one side of a wall, all facing the wall. They are lined up such that the furthest from the wall can see the 5 prisoners closest to the ...
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  • 71
5 votes
4 answers
487 views

Four hats and penalty for passing

There are four contestants, each with a red or green hat. They start with a prize pool of one million dollars. They take turns either guessing their hat color or passing. If anyone guesses incorrectly,...
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20 votes
3 answers
3k views

Sum of secret numbers is 101

Alice, Bob, and Charlie were given three numbers, respectively. They were said that all the three numbers were positive integers and the sum was 101. Alice: I know we have different numbers. Bob: ...
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  • 3,144
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

A 3-person hat puzzle (no, not that one) (no, not that one either!)

No, this puzzle isn't a duplicate of any of the well-known hat puzzles we all know. Yes, it does have a valid solution. This puzzle was originally composed by Jack Lance and posted to a friend group ...
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  • 2,351
0 votes
3 answers
231 views

Boxed AI, Ethics, and Chivalry, oh my

(Inspired by this somewhat) So, your science lab is on the forefront of super AI. However they may not be on the forefront of good AI. Hence the AI is in a box until they can figure out what to do ...
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13 votes
2 answers
2k views

Yet Another What am I? Puzzle

1) From my birth I want to rise But I shall fall, its no surprise I should display approval from afar But pedantic snobs is what you are. 2) I could produce a rise in rank But not if my cachet ...
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72 votes
19 answers
27k views

Are there eighteen or twenty bars in my castle?

Two friends, Mark and Rose, are very famous logicians; they are so clever that they can deduce any logic connection possible in a matter of minutes even from the most vague situation. Unfortunately, ...
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20 votes
3 answers
2k views

Star Puzzle: Determine which circles are True and which circles are False

A circle with number x means: “This circle is connected (straight line) to x circles with a true statement” This is valid only if the statement in the circle is True. If a circle is False, ...
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25 votes
10 answers
5k views

Liar and the Truth teller with 6 inhabitants

There are two types of people on an island: truth tellers and liars. Truth tellers always tell the truth, while liars always lie. A foreigner meets six of the inhabitants, and asks each of them the ...
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16 votes
3 answers
10k views

What are the three numbers in this puzzle?

There are three people in a room without any equipment. Each one has a number on his forehead Every person knows the numbers the other two have, Every person knows that his number is either the sum ...
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  • 457
8 votes
3 answers
500 views

The Twins and the Number of Candies

Yveti and Xerni are twins. Their mischievous friend, Cubo, one day decides to give them a riddle. Cubo comes up to them and says, "I have two bags of candies in my bag. The first of you two to guess ...
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  • 685
19 votes
4 answers
1k views

Constructing interesting "Don't Know - Don't Know - Now I know!" type puzzles

The professor has a piece of hidden information $C$. Alice is given an envelope containing information $A$, Bob is given information $B$. It is possible to deduce $C$ from $A$ and $B$. The ...
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