# Creating 2020 in the fewest number of steps

You start with the number 1. You can create a new number by applying an operation on two existing numbers (can be the same). The operations are +, - and *. What is the fewest number of steps needed to reach the number 2020? Bonus question: can you find multiple solutions?

Good luck!

• "You start with the number 1. You can create a new number by applying an operation on two existing numbers (can be the same)." - We're given 1. Where would these "existing numbers" come from? – Sam Axe Dec 18 '19 at 16:46
• @SamAxe My question exactly. I am not even starting the puzzle, just trying to guess what the other number "should" be. – Gnudiff Dec 18 '19 at 19:01
• @Gnudiff: Yup. This question is very poorly worded. Think I'll skip it too. – Sam Axe Dec 18 '19 at 20:26
• @MindSwipe integers are closed under the allowed operations of addition, multiplication, and subtraction, so you can't get any non-integer values. – paw88789 Dec 18 '19 at 22:33
• 1 step: 1 Then you just wait for, like, two weeks. – leinaD_natipaC Dec 19 '19 at 9:28

# All fewest move solutions

7 is the minimum number of operations

This should be all of the shortest length solutions, some of these have already been answered, and I'll leave credit to those that found them.

I'm also including the brute force python code that I used to exhaust all the combinations. That's how I was able to arrive at the the answer to the minimum length to be what it is.

## Solution 1

Found first by @hexomino

1 + 1 = 2
2 + 1 = 3
3 + 2 = 5
5 * 3 = 15
15 * 3 = 45
45 * 45 = 2025
2025 - 5 = 2020

1 + 1 = 2
2 + 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 + 4 = 9
9 * 5 = 45
45 * 45 = 2025
2025 - 5 = 2020

## Solution 3

First found by @Jens

1 + 1 = 2
2 + 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 5 = 100
100 + 1 = 101
101 * 20 = 2020

## Solution 4

Found first by @Benoit Esnard

1 + 1 = 2
2 + 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 5 = 100
100 * 20 = 2000
2000 + 20 = 2020

1 + 1 = 2
2 + 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 20 = 400
400 + 4 = 404
404 * 5 = 2020

## Solution 6

First found by @hexomino

1 + 1 = 2
2 + 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 20 = 400
400 * 5 = 2000
2000 + 20 = 2020

## Solution 7

First found by @sudhackar

1 + 1 = 2
2 * 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 + 4 = 9
9 * 5 = 45
45 * 45 = 2025
2025 - 5 = 2020

1 + 1 = 2
2 * 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 5 = 100
100 + 1 = 101
101 * 20 = 2020

## Solution 9

First found by @Teejay

1 + 1 = 2
2 * 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 5 = 100
100 * 20 = 2000
2000 + 20 = 2020

1 + 1 = 2
2 * 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 20 = 400
400 + 4 = 404
404 * 5 = 2020

1 + 1 = 2
2 * 2 = 4
4 + 1 = 5
5 * 4 = 20
20 * 20 = 400
400 * 5 = 2000
2000 + 20 = 2020

## Brute force search python code

def mdFormat(nums, ops, ans, sol_no):
#Formatting the solutions for markdown
steps = []
val = nums[0]
ans = ans[1:]
for i, num in enumerate(nums[1:]):
steps.append('>! %s %s %s = %s <br>'%(val, ops[i], num, ans[i]))
val = ans[i]
s.extend(steps)
s.append('\n')
return '\n'.join(s)

def apply_operations(numbers, operations):
#Gives us the new list of number choices
if len(numbers) == 1:
return [numbers[0]]

n_seq = (numbers[0], )
n = numbers[0]

for i, num in enumerate(numbers[1:]):
if operations[i] == '+':
n += num
elif operations[i] == '-':
n -= num
elif operations[i] == '*':
n *= num

n_seq += (n, )

return n_seq

solutions_found = 0

def search_n_operations(n, last_numbers=(1,), last_operations=None, choices=(1, )):
global solutions_found

if n == 0: #we're done with the recursion
return

if last_operations is None:
op_combos = (next_op for next_op in ('+', '-', '*'))
else:
op_combos = (last_operations + (next_op,) for next_op in ('+', '-', '*'))

for operation_seq in op_combos:
num_combos = (last_numbers + (next_val,) for next_val in set(choices))
for number_seq in num_combos:
new_choices = apply_operations(number_seq, operation_seq)
if new_choices[-1] == 2020: #This is an answer!
solutions_found += 1
print mdFormat(number_seq, operation_seq, new_choices, solutions_found)

if last_operations is None:
operation_seq = (operation_seq, )

search_n_operations(n - 1, number_seq, operation_seq, new_choices)

n = 10
search_n_operations(n)
print "A total of %s solutions were found for %s operations"%(solutions_found, n)


Varying the n should illustrate where the minimum bound is.

Outputs for n < 7:
A total of 0 solutions were found for 1 operations
A total of 0 solutions were found for 2 operations
A total of 0 solutions were found for 3 operations
A total of 0 solutions were found for 4 operations
A total of 0 solutions were found for 5 operations
A total of 0 solutions were found for 6 operations

• Love your work! Deserves a tick. I think solutions 6 And 11 are the same. – Dmitry Kamenetsky Dec 19 '19 at 6:38
• Thanks! 6 and 11 are essentially the same, the difference is the second operation is addition in 6 and multiplication in 11. Whether or not that difference is trivial would reduce down some of the other solutions as well. – Joe Habel Dec 19 '19 at 6:43

I can do it in 7 steps:
1+1 (2)
2*2 (4)
4+1 (5)
4*5 (20)
20*5 (100)
100+1 (101)
20*101 (2020)

Another solution (changing the last 2 steps):
20*100 (2000)
2000+20 (2020)

• Wow very nice! Note there is another solution if you change the last two steps. – Dmitry Kamenetsky Dec 18 '19 at 2:32
• Extra solution added. – Jens Dec 18 '19 at 2:37
• I like how your original solution ends by multiplying the two factors of 2020 that when summed together form the lowest number. This was my strategy but you beat me to it! – Rorxor Dec 18 '19 at 4:15

Here are a couple of essentially different ways to do it in

$$7$$ steps

Solution 1

$$1+1 = 2$$
$$1+2 = 3$$
$$2+3 = 5$$
$$3 \times 5 = 15$$
$$3 \times 15 = 45$$
$$45 \times 45 = 2025$$
$$2025 - 5 = 2020$$

Solution 2

$$1+1 = 2$$
$$2+2 = 4$$
$$4+1 = 5$$
$$4 \times 5 = 20$$
$$20 \times 20 = 400$$
$$5 \times 400 = 2000$$
$$2000 + 20 = 2020$$

• Cool! These are different to previous solutions. – Dmitry Kamenetsky Dec 18 '19 at 10:43

Another solution for

7 steps

Last steps essentially same as @hexonimo, missed by 4 minutes

1+1 = 2
2+2 = 4
4+1 = 5
5+4 = 9
9*5 = 45
45*45 = 2025
2025-5 = 2020

Jay's answer can be improved to 8 in another way

1+1 = 2
2*2 = 4
4*4 = 16
16*2= 32
32*2 = 64
64*32 = 2048
32-4 = 28
2048-28 = 2020

• A random search on the given operations can be done like this – sudhackar Dec 18 '19 at 11:36

In addition to Jens's, hexomino's and sudhackar's solutions:

$$1 + 1 = 2$$
$$2 + 2 = 4$$
$$4 + 1 = 5$$
$$4 \times 5 = 20$$
$$20 \times 20 = 400$$
$$400 + 4 = 404$$
$$404 \times 5 = 2020$$

I can do it in 9 steps, and there are multiple solutions.
Example,

1 + 1 (2)
2 * 2 (4)
4 * 4 (16)
16 * 16 (256)
4 + 4 (8)
256 * 8 (2048)
8 - 1 (7)
7 * 4 (28)
2048 - 28 (2020)

or,

1 + 1 (2)
2 + 2 (4)
4 + 4 (8)
8 * 8 (32)
32 * 2 (64)
64 * 32 (2048)
16 + 4 (20)
20 + 8 (28)
2048 - 28 (2020)

• I think you miscount 8 * 8. – Mukyuu Dec 18 '19 at 9:04

PARTIAL. Following the idea of @Engineer Toast, let us concentrate on the optimality part (which is actually the essence of the question: see "fewest").

The lower bound is 6. It's easy to see that the highest obtainable numbers are in decreasing order: 256,81,64,36 after the 4th step. We can't use addition as the 5th operation, nor multiplying since 2020 is not divisble by these numbers, and 36 should be multiplyed again with a higher number than itself. So the remaining question: is 6 operations possible, or not.

Jay's idea can be done slightly more efficiently in 8 steps:

$$1 + 1 = 2$$
$$2 + 2 = 4$$
$$4 + 4 = 8$$
$$8 \times 4 = 32$$
$$32 \times 2 = 64$$
$$64 \times 32 = 2048$$
$$2048 - 32 = 2016$$
$$2016 + 4 = 2020$$

7 steps:

$$1+1 = 2$$
$$2\times2 = 4$$
$$1+4 = 5$$
$$4\times5 = 20$$
$$20\times20 = 400$$
$$400\times5 = 2000$$
$$2000+20 = 2020$$

The one above was already posted. This one should be new:

$$1+1 = 2$$
$$2\times2 = 4$$
$$1+4 = 5$$
$$4\times5 = 20$$
$$5\times20 = 100$$
$$20\times100 = 2000$$
$$2000+20 = 2020$$

• Looks like this one was already found: puzzling.stackexchange.com/a/92063/60730 – Thomas Markov Dec 18 '19 at 16:26
• Yes, I see it after replying. The only difference is 2*2 instead of 2+2 but they are basically the same :) – Teejay Dec 18 '19 at 16:33
• I added a new one – Teejay Dec 18 '19 at 16:40

1+1=2
2^2=4
2*4=8
4^4=256
256-4=252
252*8=2016
2016+4=2020

• You can't have 4^4. – Dmitry Kamenetsky Dec 23 '19 at 4:59
• 1+1=2 2*2=4 4+1=5 2*4=8 5*8=40 40+5=45 45*45=2025 2025-5=2020 – Vassilis Parassidis Dec 23 '19 at 5:48