Let’s have two Latin Squares 6X6 superimposed on each other, represented here by marking one with 1s and one with 0s. The two Latin Squares contain twelve 5,2 pairs, a total of twelve pairs 6,4 and 4,3 there is, and also a total of twelve pairs 3,1 and 1,6

Does any one know which two Latin Squares satisfy the above requirements?

NOTE: It is self-evident that twelve pairs is the maximum number of a given pair, e.g. 5,2.

superimposed Latin Squares

  • $\begingroup$ What is meant by pair? They are adjacent? $\endgroup$
    – Moti
    Jun 30, 2019 at 4:06
  • $\begingroup$ They are in the same column, as in the figure, with 1 above, 0 below. Together they form a pair. $\endgroup$ Jun 30, 2019 at 5:46
  • $\begingroup$ If I interpret your input - all the 5 and 2 in the two squares are at the same locations. Right? $\endgroup$
    – Moti
    Jun 30, 2019 at 5:59
  • $\begingroup$ The numbers can be anywhere in the Latin Squares. A pair comprises numbers from each of the two superimposed Latin Squares, one above the other. 5 up, 2 down or 2 up, 5 down. $\endgroup$ Jun 30, 2019 at 6:12
  • $\begingroup$ I am not sure how you can construct the 5 pair combination simultaneously unless you ask to construct any? $\endgroup$
    – Moti
    Jun 30, 2019 at 6:16

1 Answer 1


If I'm understanding the question correctly, any 6x6 Latin square can be paired with another using the substitutions (2<->5)(->6->4->3->1->). For example:



In fact, I suspect all solutions will be of this form, meaning there are exactly 1,625,702,400 solutions, two for each 6x6 Latin square, reversing the arrows of the above substitution for the second solution (or if you prefer, swapping the squares labeled 0 and 1 in your table)

  • $\begingroup$ The example you have provided gives solutions to one of the fifteen combinations, namely 2,5. Does your system give twelve pairs for the remaining fourteen combinations? Thanks for your correct answer. $\endgroup$ Jul 1, 2019 at 22:13
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, there are six kinds of every pair because the permutation (1643)(25) - or its inverse (1346)(25) - sends each number to its required "mate". $\endgroup$ Jul 2, 2019 at 1:32
  • $\begingroup$ Could you elaborate, please? By "every pair", do you mean the fifteen combinations? The combinations are the following (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6) (4,5) (4,6) (5,6). Do you suggest we get twelve pairs of each combination by superimposing two Latin Squares? Specific examples would make everything clear. $\endgroup$ Jul 2, 2019 at 3:20
  • $\begingroup$ Only the combinations (1,3),(1,6),(2,5),(3,4),(4,6) are present. (2,5) is present 12x, and the other four are present 6x, for a total of 36 pairs, one for each cell of the 6x6 square. For a literal reading of your initial conditions, no 6x6 square has 60 distinct cells, so you'd need to count most of the pairs 'forwards and backwards' $\endgroup$ Jul 2, 2019 at 3:45
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you. I wish there was a way to carry on our discussion of the subject. $\endgroup$ Jul 2, 2019 at 5:21

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