Partially inspired by MetaZen’s Four Directions Series :)
This puzzle is a part of Ooohh, it all makes sense now! :D
The answer is
To the north we have
SIL+LIC+ON (SIL is second half of BRASIL, ON is ONE minus E);
to the east we have
ARS+ENI+C (ARS is the ISO 4217 code for the Argentinian peso);
to the south we have
TI+I(G)+N (T.I., left half of one version of Instagram logo; nitrogen);
to the west we have
GAL + LI + IUM (one gal is 1 cm/s^2, a unit I'd never heard of before; we need the A because the second picture appears to be of lithium floating in oil).
in between these in the periodic table we find GERMANIUM.