I believe you are
the Carstensz Pyramid (or Puncak Jaya), which is the highest summit of Mount Carstensz in Indonesia
A bowl can hold my start in place,
But try not catch one with your face.
The usual route to climb this member of the "Seven Summits" is near Grasberg mine, a large bowl shaped mine on one of the faces of the mountain. Also, the name Puncak Jaya sounds like punch, which you don't want to catch in your face (as pointed out by @Tom)
No continent do I embrace;
Being on an island it is in Oceania, but not true Australia or Asia
You may think "pharaohs" – not the case.
the name has pyramid in it, but not the Egyptian kind
A Dutchman caught me in his sight,
But no one thought that could be right.
In 1623, Dutch explorer Jan Carstensz spotted the snow/glacier topped mountain, but was ridiculed when he returned to Europe because they did not believe snow capped mountains could exist that near the equator
A white-head giant of some might,
Of my own kind none match my height.
It is snow capped (though the glacier has long since melted). And it is the tallest mountain in Oceania and the tallest island mountain in the world.