I think this is how its structured, based off of @Dmihawk's answer:
They walked with a girl,
Although they were men.
Their freinds walked onward,
But many didn't succeed.
In the cold they shivered,
As they went home.
They finally conceded,
And their neighbors got together.
This relates to the French Revolution/Napoleanic Wars. It would begin as the French Revolution, representing Marie Antonne being bragged to her execution (They walked with a girl....). The second part refers to the beginning of Napolean's conquests, with the friends of the French Fevolution being unsuccessful after Marie Antonne's death (But many didnt succeed....) and Napolean starting to conquer. Napolean also won many battles but lost some, and many lives were lost duering his campaign. The third part refers to Napolean's loss in Russia, and how many of his troops froze to death as they went back to France (They shivered in the cold....). Finally, the last part refers to the unification of monarchy of France after Napolean conceded. (Their neighbors got together....) and also the unification of different nations after Napolean, explained by @Dmihawk.
Old Answer: Rejected by OP
Going off of Mic Crozier's and @Jwolf's answer, this might be
Related to World War II, or D-Day.
"In the cold they shivered as they went home.
Although D Day was on June-July, soldiers tromped through the freexing waters of Norway. WWII also ended on September, and I'm guessing it could've been pretty cold.
"They walked witha girl, Although they were men,"
Although soldiers were mostly men, women back at home helped run the countey and keeping it stable by taking over jobs, tencing the house, etc. Maybe soldiers also liberated girls in World War II
"They finally conceded and their neighbours got together."
Since Europe was free from Nazi Germany's tyranny, they could get together and celebrate. Also, there are those old photos of people celecrating after the end of World War II.
Their friends walked onwards and many didn't succeed."
There were many casualties, as well as many battles that the Allies had lost before winning.
I dont really know how this would "fix" anything though....