Update, but still not even a partial answer, I'm afraid. I'm just thinking aloud and throw out some ideas.
What is the missing number?
AstroMax has found the actual pattern: the number n comes n places after the previous number, n − 1. This pattern uases the rows as lines and it wraps when the bottom right is reached.
This pattern can be continued until a number is placed in the last cell, which is 31. The next step would place a 32 in the same box, and by now, every cell has exactly two numbers:
The pattern can be continued infinitely, of course.
What is the meaning of the diagonal bars?
There are sixteen cells overall and ten of them are divided by a diagonal bar. That makes six full cells and 20 half-cells. That's 26 cells in total, which conveniently is the number of English letters. Hmm.
My guess was that each cell referred to a letter. Meanwhile, the OP has stated that the grid is a Playfair square. Typically, Playfair uses a 5×5 grid for the 26 english letters. The excess letter is taken care of by rtreating two letters – typically I and J, less frequently U and V – as equal.
Apparently, the present grid combines nine more letters to equal pairs. The hint says that the Playfair grid goes from left to right and from top to bottom. There doesn't seem to be a keyword, so one possibility could be:
What are the numbers around the perimeter for?
The OP has disclosed that the answer is a word. There are thirteen numbers. The Playfair cipher works with pairs of letters. If there is an odd number of letters, there must be padding. This doesn't really fit, but perhaps "Playfair" doesn't refer to the Playfair cipher, only to the practice of pairing letters.
Continuing the pattern above, so that all of the thirteen numbers are assigned a cell, we get:
17267 → 14: U or V
2008 → 12: S
18877 → 3: D or E
20793 → 5: H or I
16078 → 9: N
15177 → 13: T
5254 → 5: H or I
20689 → 9: N
21959 → 12: S
5046 → 13: T
18786 → 3: D or E
12321 → 1: A
16637 → 3: D or E
The numbers after the arrows are the cell numbers, starting with 1, 2, 3, and 4 from left to right in the top row and ending with 16 in the bottom right. The letters correspond to the scheme I've posted above, which isn't established at all. That result doesn't look promising. There is a good share of vowels, however, so maybe we should build an anagram? Nah, that would be devious.