I would say 42 as ansont yorton-detr and 58 as detrsont yortva.
I will write up my line of thinking, but I really hope I'm on the right track :)
I suspected that these aliens would not use base 10. I tried with 16 and 8, which looked promising, but I didn't get far.
Looking at the given words, there seem to be some "multipliers": sont and ton and va; as basic numerals, it seems we have four candidates: an, catr, detr and yotr.
El I assume to be and or minus. It seems that in combination with the -ton and the -va ending, tr becomes rt, probably because it is easier to pronounce. Combined with -sont, tr stays tr.
Since we have four single digit words, and zero is unlikely to be used, I tried base-5 (0,1,2,3,4).
If we write the first ten squares as base-5, we get:
1, 4, 14, 31, 100, 121, 144, 224, 311, 400.
Assuming sont to mean 100, and having three ansonts, it seems an = 1. That solves an and ansont (1 and 100 base-5).
If el an is and 1, derton el an is "xx and 1", probably 21. That solves ansont derton el an (121 base-5).
ansont carton-catr must then be 144 base 5. That means catr is 4, and catrsont is 400 base 5.
We have one (multiple of 5) + 1, so 31 must be yorton el an, and yotr means 3. Detr meaning 2 means detrsont derton-catr is 224.
That leaves cartva and yotrsont anva for 14 and 311: va following the word means the number is preceded by a 1: cartva is 4 preceded by 1, anva is 1 preceded by one.
Now for the actual answer:
We have a base-5 system and the following vocabulary:
an = 1
detr = 2
yotr = 3
catr = 4
[foo]va = 1[foo]
el an = and 1
-ton = 10
-sont = 100
let's see if we can speak this language:
42 is once 25 (100) + three times 5 (30) + 2. So ansont yorton detr.
58 is twice 25 (200) + one 5 (10) + 3. So detrsont yortva.