It doesn't seem to fit everything, but my guess so far is
A steam train
I haven’t been around for long
But my time left is limited
O damning relentless pursuit-
In the scale of human history, the steam age was relatively brief
Soon, I will be overtaken
No longer will I sing to high heavens
Left only to a diehard few.
'Overtaken' both figuratively and literally, because modern trains are faster. The whistle of a steam train is it's 'singing'. The diehard few are the heritage and historic lines that are kept.
Please, before I am defeated
Light me up. Beat me senseless.
I will ask for more.
'Light me up' = light the coal furnace. 'I will ask for more' = the consuming of coal. One bit where I can't find a suitable interpretation is 'Beat me senseless', unless this is stoking the engine?
Give me the the twists. The spins.
Give me anything but silence.
I shan’t go quietly into the night …
'Twists' and 'Spins' are again parts I can't quite match up. Maybe referring to the mechanical nature of the steam engine. 'Anything but silence' - Steam trains are never quiet.
I will roar!
Pounding a din most pleasant
With fires raging inside.
Again, steam trains are noisy. 'Fires raging inside' = the coal furnace.
Already, the shift has begun
Augmenting me with the most current
Soon to be displaced by the very same.
Most trains are electrical now ('current' could be a double meaning here?). Technological advances.
And while the future whines past
And I am left to dust
Raucous me will be naught but echoes.
'whines past' = the high-pitched noise of a modern train passing at speed.
I survive by the memories
Of those that swore by my mettle.
Of those that lived my own relentless pursuits.
Steam was hailed as the greatest revolution in transport back in the early 20th century and is closely associated with a time of rapid progress and innovation. 'the memories of those...' is perhaps talking about the fame of entrepreneurs like Brunel, etc. who built the railways (i.e. other people's memories of them, rather than their own memories).