No matter what you do, you're going to have to remove the piece, split it from the corner, and reattach them correctly. However, there are efficient ways to do it - try this sequence:
[R U R' U'] [R U' R' U] [F' U2 F2] [R' F' R]
It's a bit long, but it's an intuitive sequence of moves. I'm using the brackets to denote intuitive blocks.
[R U R' U'] removes the corner-edge pair.
[R U' R' U] splits them apart
[F' U2 F2] reforms them and puts them in the correct place
[R' F' R] sets the rebuilt faces back in place.
At my top speed, this takes significantly less time than three seconds - and I'm fairly out of practice, at that.
It's also worth noting that these positions are relatively straightforward to see coming, and oftentimes, simple adjustments to the order and choice of moves for other edge pairs will prevent this from happening at all. If you see such an eventuality, take a moment, stop, and consider what you can do to prevent it in the future.