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There are about $9.266 \times 10^{45}$ partitions of 2024, a handful! To each of these partitions corresponds a graph in which the vertices are each of the parts, two of which are joined by an edge if they are not relatively prime (i.e. they have a common factor greater than 1).

i) Find a graph (other than the graph with a single vertex and any other empty graph, that is, with no edges) such that there is a unique partition of 2024 that corresponds (in the above way) to this graph.

ii) What is the least number (greater than 1) of nodes such a graph can have?

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  • $\begingroup$ While not easy, I don't see this as a puzzle. It's a math problem. $\endgroup$ Dec 22, 2023 at 20:10
  • $\begingroup$ @ChrisCudmore Feels more like a math puzzle to me, but that's of course just me assuming that there's a clever way to solve this. $\endgroup$
    – Bass
    Dec 23, 2023 at 1:49

2 Answers 2

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I'm not convinced this is optimal, but I think this satisfies part i:

The partition $2+3+5+7+11+6+10+30+42+66+70+210+330+462+770$ induces a graph with a unique partition. This has 15 nodes.

Why is the partition unique?

This partition consists of the five smallest primes, the two smallest 2-way products of those primes, the four smallest 3-way products of those primes, and the four smallest 4-way products of those primes. Any other partition (even if it is a partition of a different number) that generates this graph, then, would have to use larger primes, larger n-way products, or extra factors; and thus it would sum to something larger than 2024. (It is still possible to be a unique minimum even without using strictly the smallest n-way products in all cases. It is probably possible to omit some of the individual primes in certain cases as well, but these things make the argument more complicated.)

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Here is tehtmi's unlabelled graph (courtesy of Freddy Barrera):

enter image description here

And here it is with labels:

enter image description here

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