Here is the binary part for convenience:
Find what celestial objects has Roman Empire visited.
There are 3 celestial objects in total. The image contains 3 rows and each row is 1 object.
I had everything figured out right away except the binary, but have finally figured that out.
Since MW has posted a partial I will only briefly summarize answers 1 and 3 or else someone can edit them in (I'm on a phone right now).
Sat. + Urn. URN is a nice tie in to the Roman theme.
And + Rome + da. ROME and the Caesar shift are nice tie ins to the theme.
This was the most difficult. We have a picture of a VW beetle car and four binary numbers which when converted to an unsigned 32 bit integer results in 1921032119. Again I noticed right away that this looks like the word SUCUS in A1Z26... But what could it mean? Thinking back to the Roman theme it turns out that sucus is Latin for... surprise, surprise... JUICE. Giving the final answer for line two of Betelgeuse which is a homophone of Beetle + juice. Thinking of Roman wine and grapes, juice is a nice tie in to the theme - although personally I was kind of hoping for Carpo, based off the Po River.
I gave this puzzle a plus one quite early with hopes that the final answer would make sense, and I'm happily not disappointed. Nice job.
Only a partial answer.
The first date was a Saturday. That image is of an urn. That means that the first celestial object is Saturn.
Third Line: (thanks a ton to caPNCApn for the help with the middle letters!)
The first symbol is an AND logic gate. The second is a caesar cipher that encodes SPQR. SPQR stands for Senatus PopulusQue Romanus, which, in modern speak, is ancient ROME. A reverse image search shows that the last symbol is "Da" from the Javanese script. Put together, that makes the third celestial body the Andromeda galaxy.