First, the clues:
Argon is about 1%?
Argon makes up just under 1% of our atmosphere. The word we want here is AIR.
One-half of twelve divided by zero equals zero?
One half of "twelve" is "lve" with a zero (or O) inserted gives us LOVE, which is also a score of zero in tennis.
Repeat repeat lost lost primarily primarily with with skirts skirts?
Not sure on the wordplay for this one, but the answer is ITERATE. (I worked backwards from the alphametic to get this one, after spotting that S must be 0).
Now for the division:
With the answers filled in we have:
Starting with the final subtraction (IAMVE - IEITS = LTAE):
From the units we have E-S = E, so S must be 0.
And from the second multiplication (I * LOVE = LOVE) we have I = 1.
Then from the first subtraction (1TERA - 1T00E = ERL), there is no borrow from the tens/hundreds, so A-E = L. (Equivalently E+L = A).
And with 0 and 1 taken, E+L is at least 2+3. So A >= 5.
From the first multiplication (A * LOVE = 1T00E), in the units we have A * E = E (mod 10). So either:
A is odd and E = 5. (So A = 7 or 9, and L = 2 or 4.)
Or A = 6 and E is even. (So E = 2 or 4, and L = 4 or 2.)
Continuing with the first multiplication, we now have A >= 6 and the product starts with a 1. So L is at most 3.
So L = 2.
(And either E=4, A=6 or E=5, A=7.)
From the second subtraction (ERLT - 2OVE = 1AMV), in the thousands we have E - 2 - borrow = 1.
So E = 4, and A = 6.
Now, look at the final subtraction (16MV4 - 141T0 = 2T64) again.
There are no borrows from the known columns. If there is no borrow from the hundreds, we have V-T = 6 and M-1 = T. But with 0,1,2,4,6 already taken, there are no suitable numbers left.
So there must be a borrow, so V+10 - T = 6 and M - 2 = T. Or T = V+4 and M = T+2.
From the available digits, the only option is V = 3, T = 7 and M = 9.
Finally from the second subtraction, we have 4R27 - 2O34 = 1693.
So R = 5 and O = 8
And finally, the word/phrase we get by putting the letters in order is: