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I am a 10 letter word. I contain some chemistry. Read backwards, I contain emotion. Scrambled, part of me spends time in the air. Scramble again, and another part is something edible. I am present in politics and biology. What am I?

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(Vassilis, I think you've finally nailed the formula for this type of puzzle - this one works really well!)
The 10-letter answer is:

DEVOLUTION

I contain some chemistry.

DEVOLUTION contains ION - an atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative charge (fundamental to chemistry).

Read backwards, I contain emotion.

NOITULOVED contains LOVE, an emotion especially pertinent for the puzzle's publish time of the final hours of Valentine's Day UTC.

Scrambled, part of me spends time in the air. Scramble again, and another part is something edible.

If we divide the word into two like so: DEVO/LUTION, each of the two parts can be anagrammed ('scrambled') into a word defined here:

DEVO → DOVE (a bird, which 'spends time in the air');
LUTION → NUT OIL (an edible ingredient in many cookery recipes).

I am present in politics and biology.

In politics, DEVOLUTION is a form of administrative decentralisation where powers are delegated by central government to smaller more local or regional organisations (e.g. in the UK, many powers have been devolved to Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish lawmakers, so that decisions relating to those areas can be made locally rather than from London in England).

In biology, DEVOLUTION is the 'de-evolution' of a species to a more primitive form, although there is much debate as to whether this is actually life going backwards or natural selection working to good effect and just part of the normal process of evolution from time to time. This notion is where the title to this puzzle comes from - after all, is devolution like this a case of progress being undone (moving backwards) or being made (moving forwards)...?

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