Firstly, @Prim3numbah did a fantastic job of recognising the various figures shown on the cards. Using his information, I managed to come up with a different answer.
Given the hint by the OP, there exists a particular reason for the trichotomy in the picture. Let us first identify the cards in each group
The Emperor, Judgement, The High Priestess, Death, The Lovers, Temperance, Wheel of Fortune, The Sun, Khnum, Thoth, Bastet, Set, Atum, Osiris, Kenny G
The World, The Chariot, The Hierophant, The Hermit, The Star
The Tower, The Moon, Strength, The Devil, The Hanged Man, The Empress, Justice, The Magician, The Fool, Geb, Horus, Anubis (in the top left corner of this door)
Now, you pretty much need to have watched this particular anime because it is highly unlikely to make the connection between the groups if you haven't. Essentially, the trichotomy is based on a particular point in the storyline, where the featured characters are either alive, dead or retired (basically unable to fight). This particular point is just before the final fight between Jotaro's Group and Dio.
At that point, the only people left who were capable of fighting are listed here with their respective Stands:
Dio (The World)
Kujo Jotaro (The Star)
Kakyoin (The Hierophant)
Joseph Joestar (The Hermit)
Polnareff (The Chariot)
This clearly coincides with the arrangement on the left side of the door. Similarly, the group at the top represents the characters who are alive but are unable to fight and the right door represents the characters who are dead. (Anubis is a little tricky as it fell to the bottom of the sea but since it's a sword, it's technically still alive)
So, who's the missing character? Well, going through the list at this page, the only one who's missing is Vanilla Ice! (under the Stand name, Cream). (We can ignore Holly Kujo from that list - she's a minor character and her Stand was never given a name).
Vanilla Ice also fits in on the right side of the door, since he was killed by Polnareff in their battle.