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Specifically Expected Answer :

One-unknown way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers, then "3R + (12-R) = 2 times 12 + 3"
which gives fractional R.
Here the second variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equation is "3R + (D-R) = 2 times D + 3"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Two-unknowns way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers and P is the number of poor buyers, then "3R + P = 2 times 12 + 3" & "R + P = 12"
which gives fractional R.
Here the third variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equations are "3R + P = 2 times D + 3" & "R + P = D"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Bonus Clue was :

In the last line, "Basically, there is one EXTRA unknown." is redundant, pointing to "one EXTRA" or 12+1.

Core of the puzzle :

Baker + Dozen = Bakers Dozen : refer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dozen and follow.

Hope all clues were highly visible , yet hidden !!!!

Specifically Expected Answer :

One-unknown way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers, then "3R + (12-R) = 2 times 12 + 3"
which gives fractional R.
Here the second variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equation is "3R + (D-R) = 2 times D + 3"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Two-unknowns way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers and P is the number of poor buyers, then "3R + P = 2 times 12 + 3" & "R + P = 12"
which gives fractional R.
Here the third variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equations are "3R + P = 2 times D + 3" & "R + P = D"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Core of the puzzle :

Baker + Dozen = Bakers Dozen : refer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dozen and follow.

Hope all clues were highly visible , yet hidden !!!!

Specifically Expected Answer :

One-unknown way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers, then "3R + (12-R) = 2 times 12 + 3"
which gives fractional R.
Here the second variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equation is "3R + (D-R) = 2 times D + 3"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Two-unknowns way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers and P is the number of poor buyers, then "3R + P = 2 times 12 + 3" & "R + P = 12"
which gives fractional R.
Here the third variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equations are "3R + P = 2 times D + 3" & "R + P = D"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Bonus Clue was :

In the last line, "Basically, there is one EXTRA unknown." is redundant, pointing to "one EXTRA" or 12+1.

Core of the puzzle :

Baker + Dozen = Bakers Dozen : refer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dozen and follow.

Hope all clues were highly visible , yet hidden !!!!

1
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Specifically Expected Answer :

One-unknown way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers, then "3R + (12-R) = 2 times 12 + 3"
which gives fractional R.
Here the second variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equation is "3R + (D-R) = 2 times D + 3"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Two-unknowns way of thinking :

If R is the number of rich buyers and P is the number of poor buyers, then "3R + P = 2 times 12 + 3" & "R + P = 12"
which gives fractional R.
Here the third variable is "D = Dozen" (either 12 [Common] or 13 [Bakers]) so the correct equations are "3R + P = 2 times D + 3" & "R + P = D"
which gives integral R, when D is 13.

Core of the puzzle :

Baker + Dozen = Bakers Dozen : refer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dozen and follow.

Hope all clues were highly visible , yet hidden !!!!